Japan’s role in global water: big choice ahead

Water Justice report from World Water Week Day 5

30 August 2011

Japanese water companies should avoid investing in for-profit water service ventures abroad, and should focus on non-profit, public-public partnerships instead.

For a number of reasons I was eager to get a chance to talk with the representatives of the Japanese development aid agency JICA attending Stockholm Water Week. JICA has for several decades funded and facilitated technical assistance and training programs that connect Japanese public water companies with partner utilities in Asia and Africa. While the terms were not used, these not-for-profit projects were excellent examples of public-public partnerships or water operator partnerships.

While this commendable international cooperation work continues with JICA's support, there is recently also a very different trend emerging. Japanese private engineering companies are partnering in consortiums with public water utilities in an attempt to enter water markets abroad. The idea is that the companies provide water technology and the utilities bring in their management skills. By operating in consortiums, the utilities can bypass the legal barrier that otherwise prevent them from operating abroad. I am worried about this new approach and find it misleading that is described as ‘international cooperation’; it is driven by commercial interests.

I asked the JICA officials how they see this trend. They were clearly skeptical. Public water companies in Japan are facing decreasing income levels in the future due to the drop in population figures and see international projects as a way to bring income. The JICA representatives, however, pointed out that the new Japanese water business consortiums are already starting to realise that it is extremely difficult to provide good services and make profit at the same time in developing countries where a large part of population have little capacity to pay. Also factors like the deteriorating water quality and lack of investments make this a risky undertaking.

I agree that it makes no sense for Japanese public water companies to engage in risky water business abroad. Instead they should build on their previous achievements and up-scale their not-for-profit partnerships, this way effectively contributing to international development goals and the human right to water and sanitation. To do this they will need legal, political and financial support, as public water companies in general face restrictions limiting their activates outside of their own service area. International aid and a global mechanism (such as the Global WOP Alliance) to support such partnerships are crucial. I encouraged the JICA to upgrade their contribution to international water cooperation by engaging in the development of water operator partnerships (WOPs), the concept that was born and since developed within the UN.

About the authors

Satoko Kishimoto

She was an environmental activist and active in the youth environmental movement in Japan in the 1990s. She began working with TNI in 2003, at the time of 3rd World Water Forum held in Kyoto, Japan. TNI successfully organized a seminar on Alternatives to Water Privatisation, which was the starting point of the Water Justice Project. In 2005, the Reclaiming Public Water (RPW) Network was created with the contributors to the book 'Reclaiming Public Water'. TNI serves as the coordinating hub of the RPW network and Satoko is the coordinator of the network. The RPW network connects activists, trade unionists, researchers, community activists, and public water operators from around the world, and advocates progressive public water reforms and Public-Public Partnerships as the key elements for solving the global crisis in access to clean water and sanitation. 

Recent publications from Water Justice

Our Public Water Future

Privatisation on the backfoot as new book shows that the growing wave of cities putting water back under public control has now spread to 37 countries impacting 100 million people.

The Eve of De-Privatisation in Jakarta

Jakarta is currently striving to join many cities around the world and remunicipalising its water. A series of fact-sheets that outline how and why water privatisation failed and the potential for a renewed effective public service.

Here to stay: Water remunicipalisation as a global trend

In the last 15 years there have been at least 180 cases of water remunicipalisation in 35 countries, both in the global North and South, including high profile cases in Europe, the Americas, Asia and Africa.

The Global Ocean Grab: A Primer

This primer unveils a new wave of ocean grabbing, answering the most important questions about the mechanisms that facilitate it and the impacts on people and the environment.