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79 items
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    Geopolitics, Globalization and Alternative Regionalisms

    Thomas E. Reifer
    01 September 2002
    Article
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    Brazil 2002. The Victory of the Da Silvas

    Daniel Chavez
    31 October 2002
    Article
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    Public Management Success in Rio Grande do Sul

    Dieter Wartchow
    01 May 2002
    Article
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    Water in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Accountable, Effective, Sustainable and Democratic

    David Hall, Emanuele Lobina, Odete Maria Viero, Helio Maltz
    01 August 2002
    Article
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    The movement is the message

    Oscar Reyes
    01 December 2002
    Article
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    Against Dictators: Use Law, not War

    John Cavanagh
    13 December 2002
    Article

    The argument over what action to take against Saddam Hussein is driven by the rhetoric of war. But can peaceful, legal action against Iraq's ruthless dictator be effective? The long campaign to bring Augusto Pinochet of Chile to justice offers an encouraging precedent.

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    The ASEM Regime and its Participants' Interests

    Sebastian Bersick
    01 September 2002
    Article
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    A Failed Balance

    • Tom Blickman, Martin Jelsma, Ricardo Vargas, Amira Armenta, Virgina Montañés
    20 March 2002
    Policy briefing

    This Drugs & Conflict debate paper elucidates the analysis TNI contributed to a high-level international policy conference to evaluate 25 years of Alternative Development.

  11. European Cannabis Policies Under Attack

    • Tom Blickman
    01 April 2002
    Policy briefing

    A strong attack against the European practice of 'leniency' regarding cannabis use and possession took place at the United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND) session (11-15 March, 2002) in Vienna. There was an orchestrated attempt to pass a CND resolution to put a dam against the 'leniency'.

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    Magic Realism for Real?

    Boris Kagarlitsky
    12 February 2002
    Article
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    Who Controls EU Trade and Investment?

    Olivier Hoedeman
    01 September 2002
    Article
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    Hope Triumphed Over Fear

    Tom Blickman
    28 October 2002
    Article
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    A Failed Balance

    • Martin Jelsma, Ricardo Vargas
    01 March 2002

    In the area of failed alternative development (AD) projects, the Andean region has its sorry share to contribute. The constant peasant uprisings n the Bolivian Chapare and the social tensions rife among cocalero peasants in the South of Colombia are woeful indicators of such failure. In January, TNI attended a conference in Germany, hosted by the German government and UNDCP. The purpose was to critically evaluate experiences in AD and draw conclusions for its future.

    application-pdfDownload the briefing (PDF)

    In 1961, the UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs prohibited planting crops having no medical or scientific purpose, fixing a period of 15 years - for opium - and 25 years - for coca - as deadlines for their ultimate extinction. Those targets were clearly not met. In 1998, ignoring decades of lack of success in addressing the issue of illicit crops, the UN set the year 2008 as yet another deadline by which to eliminate coca and opium. At the UN Special Session on drugs, AD was identified as a key instrument to be used in fulfilling this objective, as part of an integral anti-drugs strategy. The strategy's other components were eradication and law enforcement. Experience has demonstrated that the simultaneous use of these means - commonly known as the 'carrot and stick approach'- is counterproductive.

    This issue of Drugs & Conflict is dedicated to this central theme in international drug control policies. Supply reduction, one of AD's objectives, has proven a failure in the Andean region. To what was this failure due? What may be expected of AD programmes in the future, given the accumulated experiences?

    In reference to eradication pacts and AD projects undertaken in the Putumayo (Colombia), Ricardo Vargas points out that there is no fair compensation between what is expected of peasants: destroying the main source of their livelihood, and what the state offers them in exchange: non-viable projects doomed to fail and the impending threat of fumigation should deadlines not be met. International anti-drugs policy forces the Colombian government to measure its results by the number of hectares eradicated, without regard for the region's specific development conditions.

    State institutions in Colombia have no capacity to operate effectively in the Putumayo. Locked into a crisis combining US pressure to intensify aerial spraying, a collapsed peace process and guerrilla action against the economic and services infrastructure, the central government is not in a position to guarantee the adequate running of AD programmes. To add fuel to fire, there is now the argument that finance for terrorism must be combated. This further erodes the social and economic rights of the peasants and down-plays the impact of aerial spraying on health and the environment.

    In spite of widespread recognition of the failure of current 'carrot and stick' policies (a mixture of AD and repression), a 'zero option' mentality persists and deceit about success still abounds. The final declaration issued at the German policy conference is not radical in this sense. It does, however, offer some leaps forward in terms of fine tuning the AD concept, based on a better understanding of livelihood decision making processes, the importance of regular evaluations and, the acceptance of the reality that the communities most affected have not been allowed to participate sufficiently in their own development process. The declaration also manages to define somewhat more precisely the troublesome balance between AD and repressive law enforcement. It is worth noting that the UNDCP participated actively in the conference, displaying real willingness to seriously exchange opinions on these issues. This yields a modicum of optimism regarding the possibility that international bodies can learn to identify best practices and see the need to separate these from the current repressive policies, increasingly recognised as more harmful than drugs themselves.

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    Uma outra integração é possível:

    Marcos Arruda
    24 October 2002
    Article
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    European Water Corporations and the Privatization of Asian Water Resources

    Charles Santiago, Monitoring Sustainability of Globalization (MSN), Malaysia
    01 September 2002
    Article
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    Unfree Trade. "GMOs are Harmless, End of Story"

    Susan George
    01 May 2002
    Article
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    A State Terrorist, Still at Large

    Murray Karpen
    12 January 2002
    Article

    A little over 25 years ago, my daughter, Ronni Karpen Moffitt, was murdered by Chilean terrorists in Washington. This past summer one of those terrorists was freed after serving his prison term.

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