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    Declaración de la Asociación Interamericana de Defensorías Públicas (AIDEF) sobre políticas de drogas

    23 June 2014

    AIDEFLos Defensores públicos y Defensoras públicas de la Asociación Interamericana de Defensorías Públicas (AIDEF) América Latina y el Caribe, reunidos en Santo Domingo (República Dominicana) en el marco de la celebración de la reunión del Consejo Directivo de la AIDEF: (leer la Declaración)

    Declaración de la Asociación Interamericana de Defensorías Públicas (AIDEF) sobre políticas de drogas (PDF)

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    Consideraciones sobre el debate legislativo en torno a la ley de drogas

    • Graciela Touzé, Paula Goltzman, Eva Amorín, Pablo Cymerman, María Pía Pawlowicz
    14 October 2012

    La figura de la penalización de la tenencia de drogas para consumo personal se encuentra en el centro del debate sobre la necesidad de reformar la Ley de Estupefacientes 23.737, debate que pone en evidencia tensiones y contradicciones al interior del propio aparato del Estado y en la opinión pública sobre cómo enfrentar los fenómenos ligados a las drogas en el país. Diversos estudios sugieren que los argumentos que dieron sustento a esta legislación no se han verificado tras más de veinte años de su aplicación.

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    A resounding success or a disastrous failure

    • Caitlin Elizabeth Hughes, Alex Stevens
    05 January 2012

    publicationTwo observers and scholars of the 2001 Portuguese drug policy reform consider divergent accounts of the reform which viewed it as a ‘resounding success’ or a ‘disastrous failure’. Acknowledging from their own experience the inherent difficulties in studying drug law reform, Caitlin Hughes and Alex Stevens take the central competing claims of the protagonists and consider them against the available data.They remind us of the way all sides of the drug policy debates call upon and alternatively use or misuse ‘evidence’ to feed into discussions of the worth, efficacy and desirability of different illicit drug policies.In doing so they provide pause for thought for those of us who operate as drug policy researchers and drug policy advocates.

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    Dug Policy Profile Portugal

    • Maria Moreira, Brendan Hughes, Claudia Costa Storti, Frank Zobel
    23 June 2011

    dpp-portugalThis profile describes the national drug policy of Portugal, a policy that has attracted significant attention recently in the media and in policy debates. It considers national strategies and action plans, the legal context within which they operate and the public funds spent, or committed, to resource them. It also describes the political bodies and mechanisms set up to coordinate the response to the multi-faceted problem and the systems of evaluation that may help to improve future policy. The profile puts this information in context by outlining the size, wealth and economic situation of the country as a whole, as well as the historical development of the current policy.

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    México y su Ley contra el narcomenudeo

    • Carlos Alberto Zamudio Angles
    31 March 2011

    idpc-mexicoEste ensayo pretende hacer un balance de los resultados de la “Ley contra el narcomenudeo”, tras su entrada en vigor hace poco más de un año. Lo que se conoce como “Ley contra el narcomenudeo” es en realidad una serie de reformas, adiciones y derogaciones de diversas disposiciones de la Ley General de Salud (LGS), del Código Penal Federal (CPF) y del Código Federal de Procedimientos Penales (CFPP) y que involucran el comercio, la posesión y/o el suministro de ciertas cantidades de las drogas ilícitas de mayor consumo en México.

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    TNI-EMCDDA Expert Seminar on Threshold Quantities

    20 January 2011

    A wider trend for drug law reform is arising out of a felt need to make legislation more effective and more humane. Within this trend, a number of countries have considered decriminalisation or depenalisation models and many have, at least initially, considered threshold quantities as a good way to distinguish between what is possession and what is supply or trafficking and as a means to ensure that the sentences imposed are proportionate to the harmfulness of the offence.

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    What Can We Learn From The Portuguese Decriminalization of Illicit Drugs?

    • Caitlin Elizabeth Hughes, Alex Stevens
    30 November 2010

    publicationThe issue of decriminalizing illicit drugs is hotly debated, but is rarely subject to evidence-based analysis. This paper examines the case of Portugal, a nation that decriminalized the use and possession of all illicit drugs on 1 July 2001. Drawing upon independent evaluations and interviews conducted with 13 key stakeholders in 2007 and 2009, it critically analyses the criminal justice and health impacts against trends from neighbouring Spain and Italy. It concludes that contrary to predictions, the Portuguese decriminalization did not lead to major increases in drug use. Indeed, evidence indicates reductions in problematic use, drug-related harms and criminal justice overcrowding. The article discusses these developments in the context of drug law debates and criminological discussions on late modern governance.

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    Review of methodologies of evaluating effects of drug-related legal changes

    01 April 2010

    publicationThis paper analyses scientific and grey literature that examines the consequences of drug law changes, and describes their approach and methodologies. A multi-part search strategy identified 36 primary studies coming from Europe, North America and Australia, which were then categorised by the type of legal change they examined; changes to laws addressing illegal use and possession, changes in laws regulating legal use and possession, and enforcement strategies of existing laws such as police crackdowns and employee drug testing.

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    Penalisation of drug possession

    • Ewelina Kuzmicz et al.
    01 December 2009

    Polish law provides punishment for possession of narcotic drugs. It is a controversial issue whether punishing for possession of any amount of drugs is a right thing to do. Regardless of one’s opinion, it is worth being aware of the consequences of the adopted legal solutions. In spite of the high cost, the enforcement of the Act does not result in mitigating drug problems in Poland, such as reduction of drug trafficking or “deterring” their potential users.

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    México: Ley contra el narcomenudeo

    • Jorge Hernández Tinajero, Carlos Zamudio Angles
    01 October 2009

    dlrAnte el crecimiento exponencial del crimen organizado, la violencia y el aumento alarmante del consumo de drogas durante los últimos años en México, el Presidente Felipe Calderón propuso una iniciativa de ley como parte de su estrategia general de seguridad con el fin de combatir el comercio de drogas a pequeña escala, conocido en México como "narcomenudeo". La ley fue aprobada por ambas cámaras legislativas del Congreso en abril de 2009.

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    Tráfico de drogas e Constituição

    • Luciana Boiteux, Ela Volkmer de Castilho Wiecko
    01 March 2009

    pensandoEsta pesquisa realizada em processos criminais por tráfico de drogas, no Rio de Janeiro e em Brasília, demonstra que o sistema penal é seletivo, e os varejistas, que vendem pequenas quantidades de drogas, constituem 60% dos condenados, tendo sido presos sozinhos e desarmados e recebido severas penas privativas de liberdade. Apesar de, atualmente, os condenados por tráfico de drogas serem a segunda maior incidência no sistema penitenciário brasileiro, só perdendo para os crimes patrimoniais, tal situação não acarreta nenhuma alteração na oferta ou no consumo de substâncias ilícitas.

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    On the threshold

    • Charlotte Walsh
    01 December 2008

    publicationThis paper offers a critique of the UK Government’s decision to abandon its former plans to introduce thresholds into drugs legislation via section 2 of the Drugs Act 2005. This provision had been enacted with a view to enhancing the significance of the amount of drugs an individual is caught with in prosecutions for the offence of possession with intent to supply.

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    Decriminalization of cannabis

    • Wim van den Brink
    01 March 2008

    Este ensayo analiza los argumentos a favor y en contra de la despenalización del cannabis. El psiquiatra neerlandés Wim van den Brink, del Instituto de Amsterdam para la Investigación sobre Adicciones (AIAR), sopesa detenidamente las actuales pruebas sobre las ventajas y los riesgos que entrañaría tal cambio en las políticas de drogas.

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    La importancia de la cantidad y composición en los delitos relativos a drogas tóxicas, estupefacientes y sustancias psicotrópicas

    • Maria Encarnación Mayán Santos
    01 September 2007

    Análisis sobre la importancia de la cantidad de drogas tóxicas, estupefacientes y sustancias psicotrópicas en los delitos contra la salud pública, para la aplicación de una condena acorde con el daño producido; y, la diferencia entre el autoconsumo y el tráfico de drogas, sobre la base de convenios internacionales y jurisprudencia.

    Acceso al documento

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    Beyond Punitive Prohibition

    • Melissa T. Aoyagi
    01 March 2006

    publicationThe primary objective of this paper is to evaluate whether the drug conventions permit states to experiment with alternatives to the punitive prohibitionist policies that have typified the global approach to combating the negative effects of personal drug use. Because harm minimization encompasses most policies providing alternatives to punitive prohibition, the analysis that follows will focus on comparing the two strategies, in an effort to frame the current debate on drug policy.

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    Illicit drug use in the EU: legislative approaches

    01 February 2005

    legislative-approachesThis paper offers an overview of the current legal provisions on the use and possession of drugs for personal use in the EU Member States. In addition to documentary resources (the European Legal Database on Drugs – ELDD) and the current work of the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) in the field, some thirty studies and other publications were consulted. The study concludes that, in many countries, personal use of illicit drugs is considered a relatively minor offence, incompatible with custodial sanctions.

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    What Does It Mean to Decriminalize Marijuana?

    • Pacula et.al.
    01 September 2004

    publicationThis paper provides a framework for understanding what decriminalization means within the broader context of depenalization. To illustrate these concepts, it provides a detailed discussion of a range of depenalization policies observed in developed countries, highlighting for each country a distinct issue that influences how the policy is implemented and its potential impact.

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    The Limited Relevance of Drug Policy

    • Craig Reinarman, Peter Cohen, Sebastian Scholl , Hendrien L. Kaal
    01 May 2004

    Decriminalizing cannabis doesn't lead to more widespread use, according to a study comparing cannabis users in two similar cities with opposing cannabis policies — Amsterdam, the Netherlands (decriminalization), and San Francisco, California (criminalization). The study compared age at onset, regular and maximum use, frequency and quantity of use over time, intensity and duration of intoxication, career use patterns, and other drug use. No evidence was found to support claims that criminalization reduces use or that decriminalization increases use.

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    Modificaciones del Código Penal en materia de tráfico de drogas como consecuencia de la Ley Orgánica 15/2003

    • José Perals Calleja
    01 January 2004

    La Ley Orgánica 15/2003 de 25 de noviembre ha supuesto la última «gran reforma» del Código Penal español, entrando en vigor el núcleo de la misma el 1 de octubre de 2004. Dicha reforma, que con carácter general se puede calificar de endurecedora en materia de penas, sin embargo en lo relativo al tráfico de drogas puede considerarse como más benigna, sobre todo para aquellos que en la cadena del tráfico ilícito de estupefacientes se encuentran en el último lugar, normalmente drogodependientes que aprovechan el pequeño tráfico para satisfacer su propia adicción.

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    The role of the quantity in the prosecution of drug offences

    01 April 2003

    publicationAll countries use legal or judicial means to grade the severity of the offence of drug possession and related actions. Frequently this is done by reference to the quantity of drugs involved in the offence, and some countries choose to indicate certain quantities as the threshold between the levels of offence or punishment. This paper examines whether or not such quantities are defined in the various EU Member States and Norway and, if so, how.

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