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39 items
  1. rothschilds_of_the_mafia_on_aruba

    The Rothschilds of the Mafia on Aruba

    • Tom Blickman
    29 May 1997
    Paper

    "A magnificent washing-machine is sold here, its trademark is Aruba. The machine is an Aruban-Colombian product, its model called Cartel. The brand is well-known for its good performance in the United States and Europe. It is recommended by former ministers, members of Parliament, owners of casinos, supermarkets, cosmetics manufacturers and importers of cars and batteries. The washing-machine fits everybody who has become inexplicably rich from one day to another."

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    Evaluating alternative cannabis regimes

    • Robert MacCoun, Peter Reuter (RAND)
    31 January 2001

    publicationCannabis is the cutting-edge drug for reform, the only politically plausible candidate for major legal change, at least decriminalisation (removal of criminal penalties for possession) and perhaps even outright legalisation (permitting production and sale). Compared with other drugs, the harms, physiological or behavioural, are less severe and the drug is better integrated into the culture. Throughout Western Europe and in the Antipodes there is pressure for reductions in the punitiveness of the marijuana regime.

    application-pdfDownload the paper (PDF)

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    Evaluating alternative cannabis regimes

    • Robert MacCoun, Peter Reuter (RAND)
    31 January 2001

    publicationCannabis is the cutting-edge drug for reform, the only politically plausible candidate for major legal change, at least decriminalisation (removal of criminal penalties for possession) and perhaps even outright legalisation (permitting production and sale). Compared with other drugs, the harms, physiological or behavioural, are less severe and the drug is better integrated into the culture. Throughout Western Europe and in the Antipodes there is pressure for reductions in the punitiveness of the marijuana regime.

    application-pdfDownload the paper (PDF)

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    Cannabis Policy, Implementation and Outcomes

    • Mirjam van het Loo, Stijn Hoorens, Christian van ‘t Hof, James P. Kahan
    01 June 2003

    This report examines what is known about the effects of policies regarding the possession and use of cannabis. Such policies continue to be subject to debate in most if not all European countries. Different governments have made different policy decisions, varying from explicit toleration (but not full legalisation) to strict prohibition. Policymaking would be served by insight in the relationship between different cannabis policies and their outcomes, such as prevalence of cannabis use and social consequences for cannabis users and for society as a whole.

    application-pdfDownload the report (PDF)

  5. The Limited Relevance of Drug Policy

    • Craig Reinarman, Peter Cohen, Sebastian Scholl , Hendrien L. Kaal
    01 May 2004

    Decriminalizing cannabis doesn't lead to more widespread use, according to a study comparing cannabis users in two similar cities with opposing cannabis policies — Amsterdam, the Netherlands (decriminalization), and San Francisco, California (criminalization). The study compared age at onset, regular and maximum use, frequency and quantity of use over time, intensity and duration of intoxication, career use patterns, and other drug use. No evidence was found to support claims that criminalization reduces use or that decriminalization increases use.

     

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    The Limited Relevance of Drug Policy

    • Craig Reinarman, Peter Cohen, Sebastian Scholl , Hendrien L. Kaal
    01 May 2004

    Decriminalizing cannabis doesn't lead to more widespread use, according to a study comparing cannabis users in two similar cities with opposing cannabis policies — Amsterdam, the Netherlands (decriminalization), and San Francisco, California (criminalization). The study compared age at onset, regular and maximum use, frequency and quantity of use over time, intensity and duration of intoxication, career use patterns, and other drug use. No evidence was found to support claims that criminalization reduces use or that decriminalization increases use.

    application-pdfDownload the document (PDF)

  7. "Achterdeur open U"

    • Martin Jelsma
    09 February 2006

    Het Nederlandse cannabisbeleid verkeert al decennia in een internationaalrechtelijke schemerzone, stelt Martin Jelsma van het Transnational Institute (TNI). Nederland gedoogt de verkoop van kleine hoeveelheden softdrugs in coffeeshops (de zogenaamde voordeur), maar de aanvoer ervan (de achterdeur) is tot dusver verboden. In de loop der jaren is hierdoor een omvangrijke illegale sector ontstaan in Nederland die de coffeeshops bevoorraadt met nederwiet. Een kamermeerderheid wil nu het gedoogbeleid uitbreiden door een experiment met een gereguleerde aanvoer van wiet aan de achterdeur van coffeeshops, maar het kabinet is tegen.

  8. coffeeshoplicense

    Invitational Conference Cannabis Policy

    12 December 2007

    TNI co-signed a letter that was sent to the Dutch Prime Minister and relevant parliamentary commissions, stressing the need for an active Dutch involvement in the UNGASS review process and specifically to use the moment to open the discussion about the UN conventions that are an obstacle to further developments in Dutch cannabis policy.

  9. Risk assessment of khat use in the Netherlands

    • E.J.M. Pennings, A. Opperhuizen, J.G.C. van Amsterdam
    22 August 2008
    Paper

    In preparing a decision about the legal status of khat in the Netherlands, the Dutch Minister of Health requested CAM (Coordination point Assessment and Monitoring new drugs) to assess the overall risk of khat in the Netherlands. The present paper is a redraft of a report which formed the scientific basis of the risk evaluation procedure (October 2007). This report reviews the scientific data about khat available in the international literature. In addition, the report contains some information specific for the Netherlands (prevalence, availability of khat and public order aspects).

  10. Evaluation of Dutch Drug Policy

    • Margriet Van Laar, Marianne van Ooyen-Houben
    31 May 2009

    The main purpose of this evaluation was to determine to what extent the principal goal of Dutch drug policy has been achieved, as stated in the 1995 Policy Document on Drugs (Drugsnota). This asserts the primacy of protecting public health, and thus gives priority to drugs prevention and to the management of the individual and social risks that arise from drug use.

  11. Drug Policy Reform in Practice

    • Martin Jelsma, Tom Blickman
    25 August 2009
    Paper

    The academic journal Nueva Sociedad recently released an issue to promote the debate in Latin America on drug policy reform. TNI contributed with the paper "Drug policy reform in practice: Experiences with alternatives in Europe and the US".

  12. Marijuana Legalization

    • Peter Reuter (RAND)
    30 June 2010

    A number of other countries have implemented changes in law that significantly reduce the extent of criminalization of marijuana use. Only in Australia and the Netherlands have there been any changes on the criminalization of the supply side and in neither of those countries is it legal to both produce and sell the drug. The relaxations so far, with the exception of the Netherlands, have not been very great i.e. have not much changed the legal risks faced by a user of marijuana. Thus it is perhaps not surprising that the changes in prevalence of use have not been substantial. This paper provides a brief review of the changes that have been tried outside the US. The emphasis is on the nature of the changes and how they have been implemented rather than on outcomes.

     

  13. The case for small-scale domestic cannabis cultivation

    • Tom Decorte
    01 July 2010

    The shift to (inter)regional production, trade and domestic cultivation has become an irreversible international trend. Until now, the focus of most empirical work has been on large-scale, commercially oriented and professionally organized segments of the cannabis industry, often based on police data and on the perspective of law enforcement agencies. This paper offers a review of recent Dutch-language research that focuses on cannabis cultivation.

     

  14. An economic perspective on the legalisation debate: the Dutch case

    • Martijn Adriaan Boermans
    26 October 2010

    Understanding the consequences of drug legalisation versus prohibition is important for policy. Most recently this subject has gained much political attention not only globally, but specifically in the Netherlands. This study will provide a contribution to the legalisation debate based on a microeconomic analysis of the effects of illegal markets. The research question is how to design a coherent soft drugs policy framework that maximizes social welfare within the Netherlands that precludes most historical, sociological and political debates. In particular, attention is restricted to ‘soft drugs’ better known as cannabis derived products like hashish and marijuana.

     

  15. Non-residents in the Netherlands and access to coffee-shops

    16 December 2010

    Under the 1976 Law on opium (Opiumwet 1976), the possession, dealing, cultivation, transportation, production, import and export of narcotic drugs, including cannabis and its derivatives, are prohibited in the Netherlands. That Member State applies a policy of tolerance with regard to cannabis. That policy is reflected inter alia in the establishment of coffee-shops, the main activities of which are the sale and consumption of that ‘soft’ drug. The local authorities may authorise such establishments in compliance with certain criteria. In a number of coffee-shops, non-alcoholic beverages and food are also sold.

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    No residentes en los coffee shops neerlandeses

    16 December 2010

    coffeeshoplicenseConforme a la Ley de 1976 sobre los estupefacientes (Opiumwet 1976), se prohíbe la posesión, el comercio, el cultivo, el transporte, la fabricación, la importación y la exportación de estupefacientes incluidos el cannabis y sus derivados. No obstante, dicho Estado aplica una política de tolerancia respecto al cannabis en los Países Bajos. La citada política se traduce, en particular, en la proliferación de coffee shops que se dedican principalmente a la venta y al consumo de esta droga denominada «blanda». Las autoridades locales pueden autorizar tales establecimientos respetando determinados criterios. En varios coffee shops, se comercializan también bebidas no alcohólicas y alimentos.

  17. The Dutch treatment and social support system for drug users

    • Eberhard Schatz, Katrin Schiffer, John Peter Kools
    15 January 2011

    This paper, written in collaboration with the Correlation Network, briefly describes the history and the basic elements of the Dutch drug dependence treatment policy, including recent trends in drug use and the current drug treatment system implemented in the four largest cities in the Netherlands. Building on more than 30 years’ experience, the Dutch approach focuses on an integrated treatment system, which provides comprehensive support and services to the most vulnerable groups, including homeless people, problematic drug users and chronic psychiatric patients. At the same time, a strong emphasis is given to public order and crime reduction.

     

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    El sistema de tratamiento y apoyo social para usuarios de drogas en los Países Bajos

    • Eberhard Schatz, Katrin Schiffer, John Peter Kools
    15 January 2011

    idpc-amsterdamEste informe del IDPC, escrito en colaboración con la red Correlation, examina los elementos de aplicación de la ley y de implicación comunitaria de la estrategia seguida en los Países Bajos, y aporta los datos disponibles sobre los resultados alcanzados hasta la fecha.

    application-pdfDescarga el informe (PDF en inglés)

  19. The return of the underground retail cannabis market?

    • Dirk J. Korf, Marije Wouters, Annemieke Benschop
    01 September 2011

    The sale of cannabis to persons aged 18 or older is permitted in the Netherlands under certain conditions in commercial establishments called coffeeshops. The present Dutch government has proposed that access to coffeeshops be restricted to persons holding a cannabis ID, a mandatory membership card known colloquially as a ‘weed pass’ (wietpas). Recent interviews with 66 Amsterdam coffeeshop owners reveal that they expect mainly detrimental effects from the proposed measure. In particular, they predict customer resistance to compulsory registration, the discriminatory exclusion of tourists and other non‐members, and a resurgence of cannabis street dealing.

     

  20. What can we learn from the Dutch cannabis coffeeshop system?

    • Robert J. MacCoun
    31 October 2011

    In 1976 the Netherlands adopted a formal written policy of non-enforcement for violations involving possession or sale of up to 30 g of cannabis. The ‘gateway theory’ has long been seen as an argument for being tough on cannabis, but interestingly, the Dutch saw that concept as a rationale for allowing retail outlets to sell small quantities. Rather than seeing an inexorable psychopharmacological link between marijuana and hard drugs, the Dutch hypothesized that the gateway mechanism reflected social and economic networks, so that separating the markets would keep cannabis users out of contact with hard-drug users and sellers.

     

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