By definition, a revolution is a collective process, not a one-man endeavour. While the social and political legacy of Hugo Chávez is remarkable, the Bolivarian Revolution has been intrinsically tied to him as the leader. With Chávez's death, the Boliviarian Revolution faces a fundamental test.
He was called a "socialist showman" and "elected autocrat", derided as a blind hater of the United States, and ridiculed as a demagogue who splurged his country's great oil wealth on ill-conceived populist schemes, distributed largesse to undeserving regimes in the neighbourhood, ran the nation's economy into the ground, and sharply polarised its society.
Hugo Chavez died on March 5. Heads of state came to his funeral and sent condolences to his family – except for the U.S. president. Even in death the White House maintained a resentful tone toward a man we had named as an enemy. But what did Chavez do to us?
Representatives from people’s movements, trade unions, academia and civil society organisations met in the southern Indian city of Bengaluru from 24-25 October 2013 to discuss varied experiences of the assault on public services, especially health, water and energy, and to build solidarity around the growing movements to reclaim public services.
Despite immense pressure by corporations that have sought to undermine it, Costa Rica's public energy and telecommunications company stands out as a model in terms of its coverage, efficiency, social inclusion and environmental sustainability.