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30 items
  1. Fact Sheet on the Proposal to Discuss International Scheduling of Ketamine at the 58th CND

    14 February 2015

    Ketamine is an essential medicine used for anaesthesia. It is the only available anaesthetic for essential surgery in most rural areas of developing countries, home to more than 2 billion of the world’s people. Scheduling ketamine will leave these populations with no alternative anaesthesia for essential surgery, and will further deepen the already acute crisis of global surgery.

  2. Risk assessment of new psychoactive substances

    30 June 2009
    Report

    The principal aim of these guidelines is to put in place a sound methodological and procedural basis for carrying out each risk assessment. The risk assessment has regard to the health and social risks of the use of, manufacture of, and traffic in the new psychoactive substance, the involvement of organised crime and the possible consequences of control measures. The guidelines were finalised and adopted by the EMCDDA’s Scientific Committee in November 2008.

  3. MDMA (‘ecstasy’)

    01 February 2008
    Report

    Due to its prevalence of use, MDMA is a significant public health issue. The Council believes that criminal justice measures will only have limited effect and strongly advises the promulgation of public health messages. It is of vital importance that issues of classification do not detract from messages concerning public health.

  4. The WHO’s First-Ever Critical Review of Cannabis

    • John Walsh, Martin Jelsma, Tom Blickman, David Bewley-Taylor
    19 March 2019
    Policy briefing

    The World Health Organization’s (WHO) Expert Committee on Drug Dependence (ECDD or Expert Committee) released in January 2019 the outcomes of the first-ever critical review of cannabis, recommending a series of changes in the current scheduling of cannabis-related substances under the UN drug control conventions.

  5. Politics and science in classifying the dangers of drugs

    • Robin Room, Dan I. Lubman
    01 November 2010

    There is a long history of psychoactive substances being regarded as dangerous and subsequently being banned or forbidden. Often the bans were introduced on substances new and unfamiliar to a society, which were viewed as more dangerous than substances which were well known and enculturated. With industrialisation and the globalisation brought by European empires, the growing availability of psychoactive substances was increasingly seen as a problem in the 1800s, setting off social and policy reactions – what we know as the temperance movement against alcohol,
    and initial UK legislation limiting the sale of ‘poisons’.

  6. The global political economy of scheduling

    • William B. McAllister
    26 February 2004
    Paper

    This article explains the international context of regulation to control addicting substances that gave rise to schedules. It discusses the impact of scheduling decisions on subsequent national drug control legislation and international drug control negotiations, highlighting how the creation of schedules introduced new incentives and rewards into calculations about the national/international commerce in drugs.

  7. Guidance on the WHO review of psychoactive substances for international control

    17 December 2009
    Paper

    The 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, entrust the Expert Committee on Drug Dependence of the World Health Organization (WHO) with the responsibility of assessing substances for abuse liability in order to make recommendations on their control under the two aforementioned Conventions.

  8. Development of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, 1971

    01 July 1989
    Paper

    The 196l Single Convention did not include so-called "psychotropic substances" such as amphetamines and barbiturates among the drugs controlled. The discussions on the scope of control were focused on plant-based drugs, such as cannabis, poppy cultivation, poppy straw, coca bush and coca leaves This document describes the development of an international instrument for the control of psychotropic substances.

  9. Cannabis: Classification and Public Health

    01 April 2008
    Report

    The Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs reviewed the classification of cannabis in the light of real public concern about the potential mental health effects of cannabis use and, in particular, the use of stronger strains of the drug.

  10. Review of the UK’s Drugs Classification System

    • Crime, Drug Strategy Directorate
    01 May 2006

    The UK system of classifying drugs according to their harmfulness has been in place since the introduction of the Misuse of Drugs Act in 1971. Over the past 35 years patterns of drug use have changed quite significantly, and recent debates about the classification of certain drugs, especially cannabis, have led to questions about the clarity of the current system and whether it remains fit for purpose.

     

  11. Cannabis: Classification and Public Health

    01 April 2008

    The Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs reviewed the classification of cannabis in the light of real public concern about the potential mental health effects of cannabis use and, in particular, the use of stronger strains of the drug.

  12. Scheduling in the international drug control system

    • David Bewley-Taylor, Martin Jelsma, Christopher Hallam
    16 June 2014
    Policy briefing

    Scheduling is mostly prioritised in its repressive pole, though present debates are increasingly highlighting the need to modify the balance of the system in order to affirm the importance of the principle of health.

  13. Drug Policy Reform in Practice

    • Martin Jelsma, Tom Blickman
    25 August 2009
    Paper

    The academic journal Nueva Sociedad recently released an issue to promote the debate in Latin America on drug policy reform. TNI contributed with the paper "Drug policy reform in practice: Experiences with alternatives in Europe and the US".

  14. Ranking van drugs

    • J.G.C. van Amsterdam, A. Opperhuizen, M.W.J. Koeter, L.A.G.J.M. van Aerts, W. van den Brink
    30 June 2009
    Report

    In its report Ranking of drugs: A comparison of the harmful effects of drugs, the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) has performed a risk assessment on the harmful effects of 17 drugs plus that of tobacco and alcohol. These 19 items were ranked according to their degree of harm.

  15. Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse

    • David Nutt, Leslie A King, William Saulsbury, Colin Blakemore
    24 March 2007
    Paper

    Drug misuse and abuse are major health problems. Harmful drugs are regulated according to classification systems that purport to relate to the harms and risks of each drug. However, the methodology and processes underlying classification systems are generally neither specified nor transparent, which reduces confidence in their accuracy and undermines health education messages.

  16. The concept of ‘drug harms’

    • Peter Cohen
    28 December 2010
    Paper

    In my view, perceived harms associated with drugs are vulnerable to so many restrictions on reliability and validity that, for the time being, a serious estimate of drug harm per drug is impossible. In my view, it is even invalid to associate harms to drugs alone. Drugs are used by humans, under individual, social and legal conditions, in certain purities and dosages. Whatever the 'effects' of drugs, harmful or not, they cannot be estimated or even discussed without associating the drug with a particular user or user culture. Drugs per se do not meaningfully exist.

  17. The development of international drug control

    • Martin Jelsma
    15 February 2011
    Policy briefing

    The emergence of more pragmatic and less punitive approaches to the drugs issue may represent the beginning of change in the current global drug control regime.

  18. Estimating drug harms: a risky business?

    • David Nutt
    01 October 2009

    No one is suggesting that drugs are not harmful. The critical question is one of scale and degree. We need a full and open discussion of the evidence and a mature debate about what the drug laws are for - and whether they doing their job? In `Estimating drug harms: a risky business', Professor David Nutt, of Imperial College London argues that the relative harms of legal drugs such as alcohol and tobacco are greater than those of a number of illegal drugs, including cannabis, LSD and ecstasy.

  19. Drug harms in the UK

    • David J Nutt, Leslie A King, Lawrence D Phillips, on behalf of the Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs
    01 November 2010
    Paper

    To provide better guidance to policy makers in health, policing, and social care, the harms that drugs cause need to be properly assessed. This task is not easy because of the wide range of ways in which drugs can cause harm. This study undertook a review of drug harms with the multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach. This technology has been used successfully to lend support to decision makers facing complex issues characterised by many, conflicting objectives.

  20. Illegal drugs laws: Clearing a 50-year-old obstacle to research

    • David Nutt
    26 January 2015

    The United Nations drug control conventions of 1960 and 1971 and later additions have inadvertently resulted in perhaps the greatest restrictions of medical and life sciences research. These conventions now need to be revised to allow neuroscience to progress unimpeded and to assist in the innovation of treatments for brain disorders. In the meantime, local changes, such as the United Kingdom moving cannabis from Schedule 1 to Schedule 2, should be implemented to allow medical research to develop appropriately.

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