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  1. Report of the Commission of Enquiry on the Coca Leaf

    01 May 1950

    In 1961 the coca leaf was listed on Schedule I of the UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs together with cocaine and heroin. The inclusion of coca has caused much harm to the Andean region and a historical correction is long overdue, for the sake of further conflict prevention and out of respect for the Andean culture. The rationale for including the coca leaf in the 1961 Single Convention is mainly rooted in the Report of the Commission of Inquiry on the Coca Leaf from May 1950 The report was requested of the United Nations by the permanent representative of Peru that was prepared by a commission that visited Bolivia and Peru briefly in 1949.

     

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      The therapeutic value of coca in contemporary medicine

      • Andrew T. Weil
      01 January 1981

      publicationCoca appears to be a useful treatment for various gastro-intestinal ailments, motion sickness, and laryngeal fatigue. It can be an adjunct in programs of weight reduction and physical fitness and may be a fast-acting antidepressant. It is of value in treating dependence on stronger stimulants.

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    • Development of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, 1971

      01 July 1989
      Paper

      The 196l Single Convention did not include so-called "psychotropic substances" such as amphetamines and barbiturates among the drugs controlled. The discussions on the scope of control were focused on plant-based drugs, such as cannabis, poppy cultivation, poppy straw, coca bush and coca leaves This document describes the development of an international instrument for the control of psychotropic substances.

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      Coca and cocaine

      • Antony R. Henman
      05 October 1990

      publicationThis article examines alternatives to the War on Drugs through a comparative analysis of attitudes toward coca and cocaine in South America. Two regions of traditional coca use and cultivation -- northwest Amazonas state in Brazil and the department of Cusco in Peru -- are compared to highlight the differences between Peruvian and Brazilian attitudes toward coca and ethnic identity.

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      The standard low dose of oral cocaine

      • Teobaldo Llosa
      31 December 1993

      publicationCoca tea has been used for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Two previous reports found that treatment that includes coca tea can be successful in controlling relapse to cocaine dependence. In the current study, coca tea plus counseling was used to treat cocaine dependence in 23 cocaine-addicted coca paste smokers seeking treatment at an outpatient clinic in Lima, Peru.

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    • The WHO Cocaine Project

      03 March 1995

      In 1995 the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) announced in a press release the publication of the results of the largest global study on cocaine use ever undertaken. A decision in the World Health Assembly banned the publication of the study. The US representative threatened that "if WHO activities relating to drugs failed to reinforce proven drug control approaches, funds for the relevant programmes should be curtailed". This led to the decision to discontinue publication.

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      A view from a producer/trafficker country

      Ricardo Vargas
      11 March 1996
      Article
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      Cannabis use, a stepping stone to other drugs?

      31 December 1996

      publicationDoes smoking reefer lead to using other drugs, in daily practice usually described as cocaine and heroin? Raising the possibility that the answer to this question might be affirmative, is known as the stepping stone hypothesis. Recently this hypothesis has been raised again in slightly other terms: cannabis use as a “gateway” to other allegedly more dangerous drugs.

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    • Democracy, Human Rights, and Militarism in The War on Drugs in Latin America

      01 April 1997
      Book

      The following essays present insights into the various levels of military involvement in the war on drugs and the implications of this involvement in terms of democracy and human rights in the Western hemisphere.

    • The Double Role of Drug Trafficking in State Terrorism and Militarized Democracy

      Samuel Blixen
      01 April 1997
      Article

      The Mexican army, that historically has maintained a stringent "nationalistic" stance towards the United States, now supports a form of militarization that, disguising itself as a "war on drugs", imposes a "democracy of national security".

    • Radical Maneuvers

      Jayme Brener
      01 April 1997
      Article

      The increased willingness from Brazil and other countries to give a hand to the military efforts directed by the US, does not appear to be enough for Uncle Sam.

    • The US & the War on Drugs: On the Wrong Path

      Coletta Youngers
      01 April 1997
      Article

      Despite Republican criticisms, the Clinton administration has largely continued the supply-side policies and strong-arm tactics laid out by its predecessors, Presidents Reagan and Bush.

    • Argentina: Future Watchdog of the Americas?

      Adriana Rossi
      01 April 1997
      Article

      A surprising proposal presented to US President Bill Clinton by Argentine President Saul Menem during a visit in December 1996 to the White House seems to indicate a new role for the armed forces of this Latin American country.

    • Colombia: The Heresy of the Manicheans

      Ricardo Vargas
      01 April 1997
      Article
      Alongside the emergence of a new social sector arising from the drug economy in Colombia, has been an increase in the use of violence against those State officials most committed to applying justice.
    • Central America: On the Brink of a New War?

      Edgar Celada Q, Sandra Dávila
      01 April 1997
      Article

      The possibilities of a lasting peace in the region are placed in doubt by a new and silent war: one unleashed against drug trafficking, and in which the role of the region's armed forces remains unclear.

    • Armed Forces and the Drug War: Between Garrisons, Caletas and Borders

      Ricardo Soberon
      01 April 1997
      Article

      On April 5, 1992, President Alberto Fujimori announced that the Armed Forces would take part in the war on drug trafficking, especially in the coca-producing valleys of the eastern strip of the Andes.

    • Introduction: Damaging Side Effects - The War on Drugs

      Martin Jelsma
      01 April 1997
      Article

      The following essays present insights into the various levels of military involvement in the war on drugs and the implications of this involvement in terms of democracy and human rights in the Western hemisphere.

    • Bolivia: Impunity and the Control of Corruption in the Fight Against Drugs

      Theo Roncken
      01 April 1997
      Article

      The narcotics police and the secret police have been implicated in cocaine trafficking in Bolivia since the late 1950s.

    • Crime in Uniform

      • Adriana Rossi, Martin Jelsma, Ricardo Soberon, Theo Roncken, Frank Smyth, Carlos Fazio, Thelma Mejía, Samuel Blixen, Jayme Brener
      11 April 1997
      Book

      Crime in Uniform presents detailed case studies examining the involvement of Latin American security forces in the illicit drug industry.

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