Search results

3248 items
  1. Thumbnail

    Drug Use Criminalization v. Decriminalization

    • Luigi M. Solivetti
    01 January 2001

    publicationThe present paper focuses on the pros & cons of the main dichotomy in the field of drug control policy: that between criminalization and decriminalization. In the extensive opening chapter dedicated to the “Premises”, the various points of view about the advisability of having recourse to criminal sanctions are examined.

    application-pdfDownload the document (PDF)

  2. Drug Use Criminalization v. Decriminalization

    • Luigi M. Solivetti
    01 January 2001

    The present paper focuses on the pros & cons of the main dichotomy in the field of drug control policy: that between criminalization and decriminalization. In the extensive opening chapter dedicated to the “Premises”, the various points of view about the advisability of having recourse to criminal sanctions are examined.

  3. Thumbnail

    Evaluating alternative cannabis regimes

    • Robert MacCoun, Peter Reuter (RAND)
    31 January 2001

    publicationCannabis is the cutting-edge drug for reform, the only politically plausible candidate for major legal change, at least decriminalisation (removal of criminal penalties for possession) and perhaps even outright legalisation (permitting production and sale). Compared with other drugs, the harms, physiological or behavioural, are less severe and the drug is better integrated into the culture. Throughout Western Europe and in the Antipodes there is pressure for reductions in the punitiveness of the marijuana regime.

    application-pdfDownload the paper (PDF)

  4. Thumbnail

    Europe Rejects Plan Colombia

    Martin Jelsma
    12 February 2001
    Article
  5. Vicious Circle

    • Martin Jelsma
    08 March 2001
    Report

    Aerial fumigations with herbicides of drug crops in Colombia set in motion a vicious circle of human, social and environmental destruction. A worldwide campaign calls for the end of these harmful and inefficient forced eradication practices.

  6. Thumbnail

    Europe and Plan Colombia

    • Martin Jelsma, Ricardo Vargas
    20 April 2001
    Policy briefing

    The first issue of the Drugs & Conflict Debate Papers is devoted to the controversies that have arisen around Plan Colombia.

  7. Fumigation and Conflict in Colombia

    • Martin Jelsma, Ricardo Vargas, Virginia Montañés, Amira Armenta
    20 September 2001
    Policy briefing

    The second issue of our series is dedicated to the controversial topic of Colombia’s aerial fumigation of coca and opium poppy fields.

  8. czech-evaluation

    Impact Analysis Project of New Drugs Legislation

    • Zabransky, Interview by Sofia T. Jarrin, Mravcik, V. Ernesto Méndez, Gajdosikova, Ph.D., Miovskù, Jun Borras
    01 October 2001

    The first major post-communist reform of Czech drug laws was completed as early as 1990. Among other legislative changes that were seen as returns to democratic and humanistic values, capital punishment and punishment for simple possession of illegal drugs were abolished. However, in 1997 a proposal was submitted to the Czech parliament that would re-introduce criminal penalties for drug users for possession of any amount of illegal drugs. The government subsequently submitted its own more modest proposal introducing criminalization of possession, but only for amounts that were "bigger than small", which was approved by parliament in April 1998.

  9. Thumbnail

    Decriminalisation in Europe?

    • European Monitoring Centre for Drugs, Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)
    01 November 2001

    decrim-europeThis brief report analyses the similarities and differences in legal attitudes to drug use and possession across Europe in light of the recent changes in 2001.

    application-pdfDownload the document (PDF)

  10. Decriminalisation in Europe?

    • European Monitoring Centre for Drugs, Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)
    01 November 2001

    This brief report analyses the similarities and differences in legal attitudes to drug use and possession across Europe in light of the recent changes in 2001.

  11. New Possibilities for Change in International Drug Control

    • Drugs and Democracy
    01 December 2001

    The main task of the new executive director of the ODCCP would be to guide a process of internal reform that the UNDCP has to undergo and open up to challenging views outside the agency.

  12. Thumbnail

    Merging Wars

    • Amira Armenta, Martin Jelsma, Tom Blickman, Virginia Montañés
    20 December 2001
    Policy briefing

    With the new international context of the war against terrorism, the war on drugs moves centre stage as well. While drugs and terrorism are now shoved together to demonise the ‘evil’ enemy, reality is the victim. Blending the two wars to one seriously endangers the advances made to find a solution to the drug problem.

  13. Thumbnail

    Crack Heads and Roots Daughters

    • Melanie Dreher
    01 January 2002

    publicationAn ethnographic study of women and drug use in inner city neighborhoods in Kingston, Jamaica, revealed that cannabis is commonly used in conjunction with crack cocaine to minimize the undesirable effects of crack pipe smoking, specifically paranoia and weight loss.

    application-pdfDownload the document (PDF)

  14. Thumbnail

    Conflict flares in the Bolivian tropics

    • Drugs and Democracy
    01 January 2002
    Policy briefing

    An impressive reduction of the coca-cultivated area has been achieved within the framework of Plan Dignidad, but this ‘success’ has exacted a heavy toll in terms of the impoverishment and criminalisation of the Bolivian coca leaf-growing peasantry, or cocaleros, as they are known.

  15. Thumbnail

    Alternative Development and Drug Control

    • Martin Jelsma
    08 January 2002
    Martin Jelsma
    What can Alternative Development interventions realistically hope to achieve, given the growing demand for illicit drugs and the continuing prevalence of rural poverty. Non-conditionality for the concept, harm reduction for the production side, and open mindedness for an honest debate are, in the view of Martin Jelsma, necessary steps to “prevent Alternative Development as the Sacred Heart in the global drugs policy from beeing blown apart by the roaring helicopters on the horizon”. Martin Jelsma gave his critical assessment of Alternative Development at the International Conference on The Role of Alternative Development in Drug Control and Development Cooperation.
  16. Thumbnail

    A Failed Balance

    • Martin Jelsma, Ricardo Vargas
    01 March 2002

    In the area of failed alternative development (AD) projects, the Andean region has its sorry share to contribute. The constant peasant uprisings n the Bolivian Chapare and the social tensions rife among cocalero peasants in the South of Colombia are woeful indicators of such failure. In January, TNI attended a conference in Germany, hosted by the German government and UNDCP. The purpose was to critically evaluate experiences in AD and draw conclusions for its future.

    application-pdfDownload the briefing (PDF)

    In 1961, the UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs prohibited planting crops having no medical or scientific purpose, fixing a period of 15 years - for opium - and 25 years - for coca - as deadlines for their ultimate extinction. Those targets were clearly not met. In 1998, ignoring decades of lack of success in addressing the issue of illicit crops, the UN set the year 2008 as yet another deadline by which to eliminate coca and opium. At the UN Special Session on drugs, AD was identified as a key instrument to be used in fulfilling this objective, as part of an integral anti-drugs strategy. The strategy's other components were eradication and law enforcement. Experience has demonstrated that the simultaneous use of these means - commonly known as the 'carrot and stick approach'- is counterproductive.

    This issue of Drugs & Conflict is dedicated to this central theme in international drug control policies. Supply reduction, one of AD's objectives, has proven a failure in the Andean region. To what was this failure due? What may be expected of AD programmes in the future, given the accumulated experiences?

    In reference to eradication pacts and AD projects undertaken in the Putumayo (Colombia), Ricardo Vargas points out that there is no fair compensation between what is expected of peasants: destroying the main source of their livelihood, and what the state offers them in exchange: non-viable projects doomed to fail and the impending threat of fumigation should deadlines not be met. International anti-drugs policy forces the Colombian government to measure its results by the number of hectares eradicated, without regard for the region's specific development conditions.

    State institutions in Colombia have no capacity to operate effectively in the Putumayo. Locked into a crisis combining US pressure to intensify aerial spraying, a collapsed peace process and guerrilla action against the economic and services infrastructure, the central government is not in a position to guarantee the adequate running of AD programmes. To add fuel to fire, there is now the argument that finance for terrorism must be combated. This further erodes the social and economic rights of the peasants and down-plays the impact of aerial spraying on health and the environment.

    In spite of widespread recognition of the failure of current 'carrot and stick' policies (a mixture of AD and repression), a 'zero option' mentality persists and deceit about success still abounds. The final declaration issued at the German policy conference is not radical in this sense. It does, however, offer some leaps forward in terms of fine tuning the AD concept, based on a better understanding of livelihood decision making processes, the importance of regular evaluations and, the acceptance of the reality that the communities most affected have not been allowed to participate sufficiently in their own development process. The declaration also manages to define somewhat more precisely the troublesome balance between AD and repressive law enforcement. It is worth noting that the UNDCP participated actively in the conference, displaying real willingness to seriously exchange opinions on these issues. This yields a modicum of optimism regarding the possibility that international bodies can learn to identify best practices and see the need to separate these from the current repressive policies, increasingly recognised as more harmful than drugs themselves.

  17. Thumbnail

    Drug users and the law in the EU

    • European Monitoring Centre for Drugs, Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)
    01 March 2002

    dif0302Drug laws in the European Union (EU) seek continuously to strike a balance between punishment and treatment. The three United Nations (UN) conventions on drugs, limit drug use exclusively to medical or scientific purposes. While they do not call for illicit use of drugs to be considered a crime, the 1988 Convention — as a step towards tackling international drug trafficking — does identify possession for personal use to be regarded as such.

    application-pdfDownload the document (PDF)

  18. Thumbnail

    A Failed Balance

    • Tom Blickman, Martin Jelsma, Ricardo Vargas, Amira Armenta, Virgina Montañés
    20 March 2002
    Policy briefing

    This Drugs & Conflict debate paper elucidates the analysis TNI contributed to a high-level international policy conference to evaluate 25 years of Alternative Development.

  19. Thumbnail

    Recent developments regarding drug law and policy in Germany and the European Community

    • Lorenz Böllinger
    21 March 2002

    publicationRecent developments in drug policy can be regarded as taking place in stages based on certain changeable paradigms: the abstinence paradigm, the medicalization paradigm and the acceptance paradigm. For the time being there seems to be a slow transition from the first to the latter, implying that elements of all three are presently active in a diversity of policies and strategies, differing between states and regions of the German federal state and the European Union as well as between different levels of drug policy and drug care.

    application-pdfDownload the document (PDF)

  20. Thumbnail

    How can Reform be Achieved?

    • Martin Jelsma
    27 March 2002

    hans_brinkerAllow countries and regions more space for policy reform using and stretching the margins of the conventions. Strengthen alliances of like-minded nations to support one another and effectively coordinate efforts at the UN level through informal consultations and strategy meetings. Any crack in the global prohibition regime would not plunge the world into chaos immediately. We should not press for a new global straitjacket but for a model that respects cultural differences. We have to open up the debate about the wisdom of the conventions as they stand.

     

Pages