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1204 items
  1. Impacts of investment arbitration against African states

    • Bettina Müller, Cecilia Olivet
    08 October 2019

    By the end of August 2019, African States had been hit by a total of 106 known investment treaty arbitration claims.  This represents 11% of all known investor-state disputes worldwide. Between 2013 and 2018, there has been an unprecedented boom of claims against African governments. During these last six years, they received more investor claims than the previous 20 years combined. This paper exposes how the international investment regime affects African countries.

  2. Drawing strength from our ancestors

    17 January 2018

    Bertha Zúñiga Cáceres talks about how her mother's example and a belief that ancestors continue to accompany our struggles helps her and the indigenous movement in Honduras to continue to mobilise against injustice, state violence and corporate abuses.

  3. third-way-marijuana

    Marijuana legalization: Does Congress need to act?

    • Graham Boyd, Sarah Trumble, Lanae Erickson Hatalsky
    11 April 2014
    Report

    Despite a federal prohibition on marijuana possession, sale, and use, Colorado and Washington recently became the first states to enact laws legalizing the recreational use of this drug. Although the Obama Administration has taken steps to attempt to deal with this evolving situation, we believe the status quo is untenable and Congress must act to provide certainty and a framework for these states moving forward. This report explains the problem and offers a solution.

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    About drug law reform in Jamaica

    30 August 2014
    Primer
  5. Altered State?

    • Beau Kilmer, Jonathan P. Caulkins, Rosalie Liccardo Pacula, Robert J. MacCoun, Peter H. Reuter
    07 July 2010

    To learn more about the possible outcomes of marijuana legalization in California, RAND researchers constructed a model based on a series of estimates of current consumption, current and future prices, how responsive use is to price changes, taxes levied and possibly evaded, and the aggregation of nonprice effects (such as a change in stigma).

  6. Drug law reform in Guatemala

    30 August 2014
    Primer

    This page was originally published in August 2014, and last updated in June 2016.

    Overview of drug policies, drug laws and legislative trends in Guatemala

  7. About drug law reform in Mexico

    30 August 2014
    Primer

    This page was originally published in August 2014, and last updated in December 2020.

    Mexico has been at the centre of many problems associated with the illicit drugs market as the country serves as the major corridor for drug trafficking between North and South America, and is the home of several of the largest drug trafficking organisations in Latin America. High rates of drugs-related violence, chronic institutionalised corruption, a dysfunctional justice administration and the powerful presence of large drug trafficking organisations have made of Mexico one of the most violent countries in the region, a situation comparable to the one faced by Colombia during the Pablo Escobar era in the 1980s and 1990s. Although it was expected that the punitive approach towards drugs may change with the installation of Andrés Manuel López Obrador (AMLO) as the country’s president, the violence associated with conflicts between drug trafficking organisations or cartels represents one of the biggest security challenges in Mexico. 
     
    This page summarises the latest developments in the debate on drug law and drug policy in Mexico.
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    Burma in 2010: A Critical Year in Ethnic Politics

    08 June 2010
    Policy briefing

    Resolution of Burma's longstanding ethnic crises is integral to the achievement of real peace, democracy and constitutional government

  9. About drug law reform in Colombia

    30 August 2014
    Primer

    This page was originally published in August 2014, and last updated in June 2016.

    Although the legislative trend in Colombia has tended towards the criminalization of possession and consumption of psychoactive substances, decriminalization prevailed when it comes to jurisprudence. In addition, while the government of former President Álvaro Uribe Vélez (2002-2010) insisted on prohibiting, persecuting and punishing drug consumption through legislative and judicial channels, the country’s health sector, influenced by more progressive trends for dealing with consumption, made important progress in the areas of risk and harm reduction.

  10. About drug law reform in Peru

    30 August 2014
    Primer

    This page was originally published in August 2014, and last updated in June 2016.

    According to, Peruvian laws consumption or possession of controlled substances for personal use is not punishable, it is estimated that 60 percent of detentions on drug charges are related to use or simple possession. Moreover, the penalties for drug related crimes are relatively high and disproportionate, and infringe upon fundamental rights such as freedom, due process and other judicial guarantees. The penalty for small scale sales of drugs is between one to eight years in prison, according to the Criminal Code.

  11. Drug Laws and Prisons in Mexico

    03 December 2010

    Mexico is currently undergoing one of the worst crises in its history in terms of violence and insecurity. This crisis is directly related to the strengthening of organized crime in Mexico associated with drug trafficking, the divisions within the leading drug trafficking cartels, and their diversification. All this has resulted in a bloody struggle to control the key markets for the trafficking routes. The response of the Calderón administration has been a “war on organized crime” with two key elements: the growing use of the armed forces in public security tasks, and legal reforms aimed at more effectively fighting organized crime and, in particular, those involved in the trafficking, commerce, and supply of drugs.

     

  12. Drug Laws and Prisons in Argentina

    03 December 2010

    Within the international drugs market, Argentina is a “trans-shipment” country for cocaine. Recent decades have seen an increase in the consumption of narcotic and psychotropic substances in the country, and in recent years laboratories for the production of cocaine hydrochloride, though not on the scale of those in Colombia, Peru, or Bolivia, have begun to appear. The laws designed to prosecute drug crimes have failed to reduce the scale of trafficking and have resulted instead in the imprisonment of people in vulnerable situations.

     

  13. About drug law reform in Costa Rica

    30 August 2014
    Primer

    This page was originally published in August 2014, and last updated in June 2016.

    In contrast to other Central American countries, the possession of drugs for immediate personal use is not a criminal offence in Costa Rica. In August 2013 the cultivation, manufacture, transport and trafficking of drugs have all been made a criminal offence under the same article, which provides for a prison sentence of between 8 and 15 years without making any distinction between the offences. The government of Costa Rica supports the launch of an open international debate on the issue, but has declared itself against decriminalisation.

  14. Drug Laws and Prisons in Ecuador

    03 December 2010

    Ecuador was never a significant center of production or traffic of illicit drugs; nor has it ever experienced the social convulsions that can result from the existence of a dynamic domestic drug market. While Ecuador has become an important transit country for illicit drugs and precursor chemicals and for money laundering, the illicit drug trade has not been perceived as a major threat to the country’s national security. However, for nearly two decades, Ecuador has had one of the most draconian drug laws in Latin America.

     

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    State of Social Movements in South Asia: Critical Reflections and Implications

    • Mahendra Sapkota
    14 January 2015
    Paper

    Social movements in southern Asia have been shaped by the social relations dominated by the elites of the south Asian societies who share some common features in terms of culture and ideology. The movements have become contested power games around the issues of class, caste/ethnicity, gender, region and development.

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    Food Security in a Sovereign State

    • Max Spoor, Natalia Mamonova, Oane Visser, Alexander Nikulin
    01 January 2013
    Paper

    In this paper we argue that Russian discourses on and practices of food sovereignty strongly diverge from the global understanding of this concept. We distinguish two approaches to food and agriculture that are crucial for understanding food sovereignty à la Russe.

  17. About drug law reform in Ecuador

    29 August 2014
    Primer

    This page was originally published in August 2014, and last updated in June 2016.

    Ecuador is going through a process of reform of its legislation on drugs and the related institutional structure. The government of Rafael Correa is pushing forward this process, which began in 2008 with a new constitution that led to the declaration of an amnesty for small-scale traffickers. In February 2014 parliament approved the Organic Criminal Procedures Code. This replaces the criminal offences section of Law 108, a piece of legislation infamous for its harshly disproportionate sentences and drive to prosecute. As a result of the amnesty and the new legislation, thousands of people were freed from prison. Al the beginning of 2015 the National Congress started to debate a proposed Organic Law on the Integrated Prevention of Drugs and the Use of Controlled Substances, a bill which seeks to replace what remains of the old law.

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    Critical Issues in the Financial Industry

    • Myriam vander Stichele
    01 April 2005
    Report
    This SOMO report critically analyses the functioning and regulation of banks, insurance companies and other firms in the financial industry.

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