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  1. Flex Crops: A Primer

    • Jun Borras, Jennifer Franco, S. Ryan Isakson, Les Levidow, Pietje Vervest, Gustavo de L. T. Oliveira, Mindi Schneider, Ben McKay, Sérgio Sauer, Ben Richardson, Roman Herre, Alberto Alonso-Fradejas, Juan Liu, Tania Salerno, Yunan Xu, Markus Kröger
    14 May 2018
    Primer

    What is a flex crop, and what does this mean for food, land, climate, and people?

  2. Political Economy of the Rise of the Contemporary Industrial Tree Plantation Sector in Southern China

    • Yunan Xu
    19 May 2015
    Paper

    Industrial tree plantations (ITP), as a newly emerging sector, is expanding quickly and massively in Southern China, involving foreign corporations (including Finnish and Indonesian) tied to a variety of domestic partners, both state and corporate. In some places, the villagers embrace the land deals, while in others these land deals have provoked conflicts.

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    New ‘Webs of Power’ and Agrarian Transformations in Cambodia: Where are the women?

    • Clara Mi Young Park
    18 May 2015
    Paper

    In February 2012 Economic Land Concessions granted to private companies in Cambodia totalled 2,033,664 ha., and increased to 2,289,490 ha. by June 2013, covering 63 per cent of the country’s arable land. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows to Cambodia grew by 73 per cent from 2011 to 2012. The country, together with Myanmar and Vietnam, is referred to as one of the ‘emerging bright spots of the subregion’.

  4. GoiEner cooperative, Basque County

    A renewable energy model based on participation, collective ownership and gender equity

    17 December 2018
    Article

    The GoiEner Cooperative was founded in 2012 in the Basque Country as a response to both the energy oligopoly and the rise of the anti-austerity movement connected to the economic crisis. Over the past six years, this cooperative for renewable energy generation and consumption has grown to include nearly 9,000 members, and has become an inspiring model for the transition to a new energy model.

    Key attributes of GoiEner's approach include the alleviation of energy poverty, democratic and participatory involvement, and equal representation of men and women. GoiEner also supports the creation of new renewables cooperatives in other regions of Spain in order to increase local, democratic and renewable energy resilience.

    GoiEner cooperative, Basque County
    GoiEner cooperative, Basque County

  5. Statement from the 6th Myanmar Opium Farmers' Forum

    01 June 2018
    Declaration

    Between 26 and 28 May 2018, representatives of opium farming communities in several states in Myanmar came together in Lashio, Shan State, to share experiences, concerns, and initiatives on the issue of illicit cultivation, especially in relation with supply-side policies which have affected their lives and livelihoods. A final statement was concluded at the end of the forum.

  6. Flex Crops & Commodities

    01 January 2010
    Paper
  7. Connecting the dots... Human rights, illicit cultivation and alternative development

    • Martin Jelsma
    22 October 2018
    Report

    How can we resolve the tensions between current drug control policies and states’ human rights obligations? The international human rights framework clearly establishes that, in the event of conflicts between obligations under the UN Charter and other international agreements, human rights obligations take precedence. As legally regulated cannabis markets start to grow, now is the time to secure a legitimate place for small farmers using alternative development, human rights and fair trade principles.

  8. Growers' voices at the Commission on Narcotic Drugs

    Sai Lone, Pedro Arenas
    24 November 2019
    Declaration

    From 16 to 18 October 2019, representatives of member states, intergovernmental organisations, and civil society attended the 6th Intersessional Meeting of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs. On 17 October 2019, representatives of coca and opium growers from Colombia and Myanmar delivered statements highlighting the situation of communities involved in the illicit cultivation of coca and opium in both countries. Below are their full statements.

  9. Thumbnail Amapola, opio y heroína

    Poppies, opium, and heroin: Production in Colombia and Mexico

    • Guillermo Andrés Ospina, Jorge Hernández Tinajero, Martin Jelsma
    16 April 2018
    Report

    Poppy cultivation in Mexico and Colombia is part of a local economy geared almost exclusively toward the illegal market abroad: it is driven by demand for heroin, primarily in the United States.

  10. The Politics of Flex crops and Commodities

    • Jennifer Franco, Jun Borras, Pietje Vervest, S. Ryan Isakson, Les Levidow
    20 June 2014
    Report

    Flex crops are crops that can be used for food, feed, fuel or industrial material. Their emergence as critical global commodities is integral to understanding today's agroindustrial economy. 

  11. The Political Economy of Oil Palm as a Flex Crop

    • Alberto Alonso-Fradejas, Juan Liu, Tania Salerno, Yunan Xu
    19 May 2015
    Paper

    The ‘how’ and ‘why’ of oil palm flexing is heavily influenced by a synthesis of forces and relations within and around the oil palm value web. These dynamics impact the way flexing among oil palm’s different uses is influenced and/or carried out by various powerful actors within the state, the private sector, and civil society.

  12. Flex trees

    • Markus Kröger
    20 June 2014
    Report

    Flex trees seem to offer timely opportunities for socio-environmentally sustainable solutions, but also present dangers, particularly if such changes accelerate the concentration of land and plantation-based development, whereby forests compete with and may replace food production.

  13. Agrofuel Crops

    • Jennifer Franco, Lucia Goldfarb, David Fig, Luisa Mendonca, Les Levidow, Mireille Hoenicke
    06 April 2010
    Report

    In recent years, there has been renewed interest in developing agrofuels on a large scale as an alternative to fossil fuel. EU biofuels policy, in particular, assumes that the environmental impacts associated with agrofuels production will be largely beneficial. This study questions such optimistic assumptions.

  14. Between collective organisation and commercialisation

    Martín Barriuso Alonso
    08 August 2012
    Article

    The last few years have witnessed a boom in new cannabis user associations in Spain. Although there are no reliable figures for them, most are known to have been created for the collective cultivation of marihuana crops, and are now several hundred-strong. They are mainly found in Catalonia, which is also home to the largest of them: some have existed for only a short time but already have several thousand members.

  15. Between collective organisation and commercialisation

    Martín Barriuso Alonso
    09 August 2012
    Article
  16. Guerrilla Media Collective

    Profile

    Guerrilla Media Collective is a P2P communications collective and cooperative. Created to share ideas between communities and fulfilling a more generous idea of what ‘globalization’ could be. Find out more at https://www.guerrillatranslation.org.

  17. Crop spraying

    • Drugs and Democracy
    01 December 2007
    Policy briefing

    The United States is putting strong pressure on the Afghan government to officially adopt the strategy of eradicating the opium poppy through aerial spraying of the crops with the herbicide glyphosate.

  18. Producers of Crops

    01 January 2015
    Topic

    TNI’s Drugs & Democracy programme has dedicated a large share of its attention on (national and international) drug control policies towards crop cultivation and alternative development. In doing so, the programme works closely with - representatives and/or families of - producers of cannabis, opium, and coca, whose voices are often left out from the policymaking arenas. Furthermore, the programme aims to build bridges between crop producing communities and important stakeholders such as civil society or nongovernmental organisations, community leaders, and policymakers - as an integral part of the programme’s efforts to advocate for more humane and inclusive approaches guided by the principles of human rights, development, and harm reduction.

  19. The Politics of Flexing Soybeans in China and Brazil

    • Gustavo de L. T. Oliveira, Mindi Schneider
    15 September 2014
    Report

    The trajectories of soy developments in Brazil and China are related despite moving largely in opposite directions.

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