The 'Bottom-up Accountability Initiatives to Claim Tenure Rights in Sub-Saharan Africa' project was a multi-year many-partner endeavour: FIAN, ISS, PLAAS (the institute for Poverty, Land, and Agrarian Studies at the University of the Western Cape, South Africa), and TNI collaborated with local partners in Nigeria (ERA/Friends of the Earth Nigeria), Mali (CNOP- Coordination Nationale des Organisations Paysannes), Uganda (Katosi Women Development Trust), and SouthAfrica (Masifundise Development Trust). The project focused on Action Research, carried out by the country partners, working with communities of peasants and fishers whose access to land or resources (including fisheries) were being threatened by land, water, and resource grabbing. The project sought to find ways that these communities could use the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of the Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests (VGGTs or TGs), an international soft law instrument endorsed by the UN Committee on Food Security in 2012, to strengthen their rights and push for bottom-up accountability.