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15 items
  1. Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs

    • Philippe Lucas, Amanda Reiman, Mitch Earleywine, Stephanie K. McGowan, Megan Oleson, Michael P. Coward, Brian Thomas
    19 Noviembre 2012

    This article examines the subjective impact of medical cannabis on the use of both licit and illicit substances via self-report from 404 medical cannabis patients recruited from four dispensaries in British Columbia, Canada. The aim of this study is to examine a phenomenon called substitution effect, in which the use of one product or substance is influenced by the use or availability of another.

     

  2. Cocaine addiction treatments to improve control and reduce harm (CATCH)

    • Mascha Nuijten, Peter Blanken, Wim van den Brink, Vincent Hendriks
    18 Agosto 2011

    Cocaine, particularly in its base form ('crack'), has become one of the drugs of most concern in the Netherlands, being associated with a wide range of medical, psychiatric and social problems for the individual, and with significant public order consequences for society. Available treatment options for cocaine dependent users are limited, and a substantial part of the cocaine dependent population is not reached by the addiction treatment system.

     

  3. Uptake, benefits of and barriers to safer crack use kit (SCUK) distribution programmes in Victoria, Canada

    • Andrew Ivsins, Eric Roth, Nadine Nakamura, Mel Krajden, Benedikt Fischer
    30 Junio 2011

    Crack use is prevalent amongst street drug users in Canadian cities, and associated with severe drug use, health and social problems. Whilst few targeted interventions are available for crack use, the common use and sharing of hazardous makeshift paraphernalia are a key concern, as these risks may be associated with oral injury and blood-borne virus (BBV) transmission amongst users. Recently, distribution programmes of so-called 'safer crack use kits' (SCUKs) have been initiated in select Canadian cities, primarily to reduce the use of unsafe materials and paraphernalia sharing amongst crack users. This study explored uptake and benefits of, barriers to, and possible improvements to two recently implemented SCUK distribution programme in Victoria, Canada.

     

  4. crack-smoking-brazil

    Do crack smoking practices change with the introduction of safer crack kits?

    • Leslie A. Malchy, Vicky Bungay, Joy L. Johnson, Jane Buxton
    30 Abril 2011

    Crack smoking has increased in Vancouver despite the harms associated with its use. Many people who smoke crack share their equipment, thereby increasing their risk for infectious disease. This project explored the effects of outreach distribution of "safer crack kits" on smoking practices. While kit distribution made safer use items more accessible, its impact on safer use practice was limited. Our findings highlight the need for targeted distribution of safer use items. Future research should explore the dynamics of unsafe crack smoking practices and ways to leverage safer use messaging.

     

  5. crack-smoking-rio

    Do crack smoking practices change with the introduction of safer crack kits?

    • Leslie A. Malchy, Vicky Bungay, Joy L. Johnson, Jane Buxton
    30 Abril 2011

    Crack smoking has increased in Vancouver despite the harms associated with its use. Many people who smoke crack share their equipment, thereby increasing their risk for infectious disease. This project explored the effects of outreach distribution of "safer crack kits" on smoking practices. While kit distribution made safer use items more accessible, its impact on safer use practice was limited. Our findings highlight the need for targeted distribution of safer use items. Future research should explore the dynamics of unsafe crack smoking practices and ways to leverage safer use messaging.

     

  6. canada-pot-flag

    The Safer Crack Use Program

    01 Junio 2010

    This fact sheet explains the Safer Crack Use Program of the Public Health Department of Toronto (Canada). In Toronto, a range of community-based, government and institutional agencies deliver harm reduction services. As with other harm reduction measures, there is no evidence that the distribution of safer crack use kits encourages drug use. Only people who are already using crack cocaine participate in the Safer Crack Use Program.

     

  7. Smoking of crack cocaine as a risk factor for HIV infection among people who use injection drugs

    • Kora DeBeck et. al.
    27 Octubre 2009

    This paper examined whether use of crack cocaine has become a risk factor for HIV infection. Smoking of crack cocaine was found to be an independent risk factor for HIV seroconversion among injection drug users. This finding points to the urgent need for evidence-based public health initiatives targeted at people who smoke crack cocaine. Innovative interventions that have the potential to reduce HIV transmission in this population, including the distribution of safer crack kits and medically supervised inhalation rooms, need to be evaluated.

     

  8. Distributing safer crack use kits in Canada

    01 Septiembre 2008

    A number of public health departments and community organizations in Canada distribute safer crack use kits to people who use crack cocaine. The kits typically include mouthpieces, glass stems and screens, as well as condoms and referral information for other health and support services. This document outlines why such health programs are needed and answers a number of legal questions related to the distribution of safer crack use kits.

     

  9. Characterization of the crack cocaine culture in the city of São Paulo: a controlled pattern of use

    • Lúcio Garcia de Oliveira, Solange Aparecida Nappo
    01 Julio 2008

    In the city of São Paulo, the culture of crack use has undergone considerable changes over these 11 years since it was first described. The sociodemographic profile of the users is practically the same and most use is still compulsive, with significant physical, moral and social impairment among them. Sole use of crack has overwhelmingly been replaced by associations between crack and other drugs, thus characterizing users in the city of São Paulo as multiple drug users.

     

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    Smokeable cocaine and crack in Brazil

    • Tom Blickman
    02 Octubre 2006
    Paper

    In Brazil, the first large crack consumption market appeared at the end of the 1980s in São Paulo and expanded during the 1990s reaching its peak halfway the decade. Crack use spread to other regions in Brazil during the 1990s, in particular to youngsters from low-income population in urban areas. A 2002 survey among young street dwellers in all the state capitals revealed that crack had spread to 22 states.

  11. 'Paco' Under Scrutiny

    • Transnational Institute (TNI)
    01 Octubre 2006

    Based on two studies carried out in the cities of Buenos Aires and Montevideo, this report examines the origin, characteristics and impact of the explosive increase in cocaine base paste in urban areas. It also highlights the variety of products consumed in these cities and the substance known as crack that is consumed in Brazilian cities. The Brazilian experience with this consumption could serve as an example and a lesson for the Southern Cone.

     

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    Crack Heads and Roots Daughters

    • Melanie Dreher
    01 Enero 2002

    publicationAn ethnographic study of women and drug use in inner city neighborhoods in Kingston, Jamaica, revealed that cannabis is commonly used in conjunction with crack cocaine to minimize the undesirable effects of crack pipe smoking, specifically paranoia and weight loss.

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  13. coca-leaf-cocaine-maintenance

    Coca leaf chewing as therapy for cocaine maintenance

    • Jorge Hurtado Gumucio
    30 Septiembre 2000

    The cocaine base, or “pasta”, may be seen as a type of South American crack. Its obligatory method of administration is smoking. A primary condition of the “pasta” smoker is compulsive drug-search behavior and addiction to cocaine base destroys emotional and mental balance. Socio-economic maladjustment is the norm amongst “pasta” addicts. Since 1984 I have recommended the chewing of the coca leaf, between 100 to 200 grams of coca leaf per week for the treatment of cocaine dependence.

  14. publication

    Therapeutic Use of Cannabis by Crack Addicts in Brazil

    • Eliseu Labigalini Jr, Lucio Ribeiro Rodrigues, Dartiu Xavier Da Silveira
    01 Octubre 1999

    This study ensued from clinical observations based on spontaneous accounts by crack abusers undergoing their first psychiatric assessment, where they reported using cannabis in an attempt to ease their own withdrawal symptoms.

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    The standard low dose of oral cocaine

    • Teobaldo Llosa
    31 Diciembre 1993

    publicationCoca tea has been used for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Two previous reports found that treatment that includes coca tea can be successful in controlling relapse to cocaine dependence. In the current study, coca tea plus counseling was used to treat cocaine dependence in 23 cocaine-addicted coca paste smokers seeking treatment at an outpatient clinic in Lima, Peru.

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