The environmental crisis is worsening day by day: Climate change is an urgent global threat with dramatically different effects around the world; air pollution and biodiversity loss driven by habitat destruction and the impacts of industrial agriculture are just some of its manifestations. Around the world communities and social movements have historically developed ways of relating to non-human nature in more balanced ways. Today, a growing number of “false solutions” to the environmental crisis rely on market-based projects that further erode local communities’ democratic control over resources and increase corporate take-over of those resources, now described as “sustainable development”. A clear understanding of the systemic forces driving climate change and environmental destruction on the one hand, and exploitation and dispossession of communities on the other, is critical to seeking out and realizing real solutions to urgent environmental threats.