Like Hamlet, Shakespeare's conflicted Prince of Denmark, China was caught between conflicting currents in Copenhagen. Its failure to manage these challenges led to its biggest diplomatic debacle in years.
Most political leaders face a challenge they refuse to acknowledge: to gain control of runaway climate change they must abandon convenience, the unchallenged assumptions that place the corporation as means and ends of policies.
Russian authorities and much of the Russian public have pretended up to now that there were no costs to privatisation of forests and that there was no climate crisis. We have to hope this year's fires and heatwave causes a change in policy.
The EU could play a valuable role in preventing another flawed climate deal if it neutralises the US and brings other ditherers on board while starting talks on future obligations for the emerging economies.
Why has the UN allowed 13 corporate partners, many deeply responsible for climate change, to sponsor and influence climate talks in Warsaw? An infographic from a series that illustrates TNI/CEO's COP19 guide to corporate lobbying.
The Paris COP21 talks failed to deliver a meaningful result, judged from either a scientific or social justice point-of-view. However it did reveal the presence of an increasingly sophisticated and powerful climate justice movement that heralds the most hope for a just response to the global climate crisis.