Like Hamlet, Shakespeare's conflicted Prince of Denmark, China was caught between conflicting currents in Copenhagen. Its failure to manage these challenges led to its biggest diplomatic debacle in years.
Most political leaders face a challenge they refuse to acknowledge: to gain control of runaway climate change they must abandon convenience, the unchallenged assumptions that place the corporation as means and ends of policies.
Russian authorities and much of the Russian public have pretended up to now that there were no costs to privatisation of forests and that there was no climate crisis. We have to hope this year's fires and heatwave causes a change in policy.
The EU could play a valuable role in preventing another flawed climate deal if it neutralises the US and brings other ditherers on board while starting talks on future obligations for the emerging economies.